Purpose of the course:

The University Expert course “Clinical Methodology in Refractive, Cataract and Corneal Surgery”, aims to provide an integral education in the topic in a suitable framework for learning, using an comprehensive program, ranging from the basic sciences of refractive surgery, such as: Ocular Anatomy, Physiology and Optics, to the advanced methods of surgical correction of cataracts, corneal and refraction surgery along with management of complications.
The didactic material is created evidence-based, above all in refractive surgery, providing the knowledge which is today necessary on the subjects of Cataract and Cornea surgery which are necessary for the modern comprehensive refractive surgeon. The Course also offers teaching activities about methodologies of medical research, analysis of results, statistical methods such as the computer program SPSS, as well as a certified course on Good Clinical Practices, explaining also the Helsinki declaration for the purpose of clinical research.

The Course offers also the possibility for the student to develop a Research Project at the end of the course, in which the student will need to be able to demonstrate the acquired the adequate skills and apply the methodology and techniques of clinical research that have been learned during the course . This activity is performed under the tutorship of the well-known experts of the International Faculty of the Course.

The advances of communication have made scientific knowledge more globally accessible, facilitating the learning process across the internet and other computer platforms, giving rise to a quicker and more flexible way to learn. Online education ensures the reception of educational programs such as this course, to a large number of ophthalmologists, through a flexible form that suits the demanding medical profession.

The creation of this course and the resulting degree is done for the benefit of the international ophthalmology community to cover the gap that today exists in many Ophthalmology teaching programs about Refractive Surgery. The Course has the university recognition, once that is completed and evaluated, at the level of UNIVERSITY EXPERT, by the University of Miguel Hernandez.

Objectives of the course:

  • Provide a comprehensive review of basic scientific review related to refractive surgery.
  • To provide an didactic comprehensive educational program about the fundamentals and advances of refractive surgery.
  • Focus of refractive topics related to cataract surgery.
  • Focus on corneal diseases and the perspective analysis of refractive treatment.
  • Provide a summary of essential surgery skills, research and instrumentations that a refractive surgeon needs.
  • Incorporate evidence-based medical concepts following international guidelines for management practice.
  • Training in good clinical practices in relation to clinical trials.
  • Create an interactive network channel between students and a panel of international consultants and professors at a global level.
  • The students are introduced to the fundamentals of research methodology and analysis of data using as scientific tools Biostatistical methods and Good Clinical Practice standards.
  • The integration of students in research projects related to themes of the course.
  • Enhance the importance of continued and self-medical education.
  • To help the students reach a level of knowledge in the theoretical framework necessary to establish a solid internship for training.
  • Creation of active channels in the analysis method, management and advice of complicated clinical situations.
  • Training for surgeons to learn methods of detection and treatments of issues. They will know how to treat these issues with an ethical perspective keeping in mind the rights of the patients.


Introduction to the Refractive Surgery Module

   Part A: Basic Refractive Surgery Course

  1. A Short History about Refractive Surgery
  2. Refractive Anatomy of the Eye
  3. Accommodation of the Eye
  4. Methods of studying the eye in Refractive Surgery
  5. Methods of studying the Refraction of the eye: Subjective and Objective methods (I) y (II).
  6. Refractive errors: causes and associated comorbidities
  7. Epithelial thickness mapping in Refractive Surgery screening
  8. Methods for the correction of Ametropia: Optical compensation and contact lenses
  9. The Correction of High Myopia and High Hyperopia Refractive Errors
  10. Outcomes in Refractive Surgery
  11. Complications of Refractive Surgery
  12. Refractive Surgery and Quality of life

   Part B: Advanced Concepts of Refractive Course (Corneal Surgery)

  1. The Sociology of Refractive Surgery
  2. Excimer Laser and Photoablation: Basic concepts
  3. Surface Excimer Laser Ablation Surgery (PRK)
  4. Modern Myopic PRK
  5. Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) (I)
  6. LASIK: Surgical Technique (II)
  7. The practice of LASIK and PRK: Surgical Videos
  8. Customized Excimer Laser Surgery
  9. LASIK: Reoperation Enhancements
  10. Myopic Lasik and Astigmatic Lasik
  11. Hyperopic Lasik
  12. Complications of Lasik
  13. Femtosecond Laser Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE)
  14. Presbyopia Surgery
  15. Laser Refractive Surgery for Presbyopia: PresbyLASIK
  16. Intracorneal Inlays in the correction of  Presbyopia

   Part C: Advanced Refractive Course (Intraocular Refractive Surgery)

  1. Phakic intraocular lenses (I): An introduction
  2. Phakic IOLs (II): How to March Patients with Lenses for A Successful Outcome
  3. Phakic IOLs: (III) The Artilens IOLs
  4. Phakic IOLs (IV): The ICL IOL
  5. Modern Multifocal IOLs (I): What do they offer, what can we get
  6. Modern Multifocal IOLs (II): Complications and their management
  7. Extended Depth of focus (EDOF) Intraocular lenses

   Part D:

  1. End of Module Evaluation:
    A- Case study Evaluation
    B- MCQ Test

Introduction to the Corneal Module

   Part A: Fundamentals of Corneal Imaging and Treatment Modalities:

  1. Basics of Corneal Imaging
    1.1 Application of Aberrometry in the Clinical Practice
    1.2 Anterior Segment OCT
  2. Corneoplastic Surgery
    2.1 Modern Trends in Corneal Grafting Surgery
    2.2 Post-operative follow up and Complications in Keratoplasty
  3. Keratoconus Diagnosis and Management (I)
  4. Keratoconus Diagnosis and Management (II)
    4.1 ICRS: Types and Indications
    4.2 Guide of Actions in Keratoconus
  5. Crosslinking
    5.1 Corneoplasty Surgery
    5.2 Crosslinking in Refractive Surgery
    5.3 Crosslinking in Corneal Infectious

   Part B: Modern Corneal Transplantation Surgery:

  1. Corneal Basic Suturing techniques
  2. Corneal Surgical Instruments tutorial
  3. Corneal Lamellar Techniques:
    3.1 DALK
    – Big Bubble Technique
    – Manual Technique
    3.2 DMEK
    3.3 DSAEK
    3.4   Bowmann Layer Transplantation
  4. Penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP)
  5. Femtosecond Laser Corneal Surgery
    5.1 Introduction to Fs Laser Corneal Surgery
    5.2 Femtosecond Lasik
    5.3 Femtosecond laser assisted Keratoplasty
    5.4 Femtosecond laser Corneal Excision
    5.5 Femtosecond laser assisted Keratopigmentation and other applications
  6.  Glaucoma in Corneal Transplantation: Therapeutic approaches
  7. End of Module Evaluation:
    A- End of Module Case Study Evaluation
    B- MCQ Test
  1. Introduction to the Module: Modern treatment alternatives of keratoconus
  2. Keratoconus: Diagnosis, Grading and Advanced Treatment alternatives
  3. Paediatric Keratoconus
  4. Intracorneal rings and segments
  5. Advanced concepts in Collagen Cross Linking (CXL)
  6. Advanced Keratoconus treatment with combined customised PRK and CXL
  7. Corneal grafting in Keratoconus
  8. Cataract surgery in Keratoconus
  9. End of Module Evaluation
    A-End of Module Case study Evaluation
    B-MCQ Test

Introduction to the module

Part A: Surgical Modalities

  1. Basic Phacoemulsification Course
    1.1 Introduction and Basic Concepts
    1.2 Elements of Phacoemulsification
    1.3 Starting Up the Surgery
    1.4 Viscoelastics in Phacoemulsification
    1.5 Phacoemulsification Surgery: Stepwise Approach (PART 1)
    1.6 Phacoemulsification Surgery: Stepwise Approach (PART 2)
    1.7 Complications in Phacoemulsifications
    1.8 End of Course Quiz
  2. Minimal Invasive Lens Surgery Course
    2.1 MILS: Part 1
    2.2 MILS: Part 2
    2.3 End of Course Quiz
  3. Refractive Lens Exchange: Indications and Outcomes
    3.1 Refractive Lens Exchange
    3.2 End of Course Quiz
  4. Femtosecond Assisted Cataract Surgery
  5. Refractive Surgery after Cataract Surgery
  6. Cataract Surgery following Corneal surgery
  7. Bilensectomy: Indications, surgical techniques and outcomes


  1. Intraocular lenses in Refractive lens Surgery
    1.1 IOL Calculation
    1.2 IOL Calculation following Corneal Refractive Surgery
    1.3 Aspheric IOLs
    1.4 Toric IOLs
  2. End of the Module Evaluation
    A-End of Module Case study Evaluation
    B-MCQ Test
  1. Introduction to the module
  2. Guidelines and standards in Refractive Surgery
  3. Guidelines and standards in Cataract Surgery
  4. Guidelines and standards in Cornea Surgery
  5. End of the Module Evaluation
    A- End of Module Case study Evaluation
    B- MCQ Test
  1. External Educational Service link
  2. Module Course Evaluation
  1. Instructions for the End of the Course Evaluation:
    1.1 Clinical Cases Final Evaluation
    1.2 Final Project (Optional)
  2. Epilogue : The full history of Refractive Surgery and future innovations to come


Course Director

  • Prof. Dr. Jorge L. Alió – MD, PhD, FEBOphth

Associate Director Course

  • Dr. Jorge L. Alió del Barrio MD, PhD, FEBOS-CR


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